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Salesforce Formulas Cheatsheet

Salesforce Formulas Cheatsheet

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FORMULAS QUICK REFERENCE

Summary
Working with formulas Find
out which operators can be
used in which formulas and
what each one does

Math Operators
Operator

Description

Add

Calculates the sum of two values

Subtract

Calculates the difference of two values

Multiply

Multiplies its values

Divide

Divides its values

Exponentiation Raises a number to a power of a specified number
Open Parenthesis Specifies that the expressions within the open parenthesis and close parenthesis
and Close
are evaluated first All other expressions are evaluated using standard operator
Parenthesis
precedence

Logical Operators
Operator

Description

and Equal

Evaluates if two values are equivalent The and operator are
interchangeable

and Not
Equal

Evaluates if two values are not equivalent

Less Than

Evaluates if a value is less than the value that follows this symbol

Greater Than

Evaluates if a value is greater than the value that follows this symbol

Less Than or
Equal

Evaluates if a value is less than or equal to the value that follows this symbol

Greater Than or Evaluates if a value is greater than or equal to the value that follows this symbol
Equal

AND

Evaluates if two values or expressions are both true Use this operator as an

alternative to the logical function AND

OR

Evaluates if at least one of multiple values or expressions is true Use this operator

as an alternative to the logical function OR

Last updated February

Formulas Quick Reference

Text Operators
Operator

Description

Concatenate

Connects two or more strings

Date and Time Functions
Function

Description

ADDMONTHS

Returns the date that is the indicated number of months before or after a
specified date If the resulting month has fewer days than the start month then
the function returns the last day of the resulting month Otherwise the result
has the same day component as the specified date

DATE

Returns a date value from year month and day values you enter Salesforce

displays an error on the detail page if the value of the DATE function in a formula

field is an invalid date such as February in a nonleap year

DATEVALUE

Returns a date value for a datetime or text expression

DATETIMEVALUE

Returns a year month day and GMT time value

DAY

Returns a day of the month in the form of a number between and

HOUR

Returns the local time hour value without the date in the form of a number from
through

MILLISECOND

Returns a milliseconds value in the form of a number from through

MINUTE

Returns a minute value in the form of a number from through

MONTH

Returns the month a number between January and December in number
format of a given date

NOW

Returns a datetime representing the current moment

SECOND

Returns a seconds value in the form of a number from through

TIMENOW

Returns a time value in GMT representing the current moment Use this function

instead of the NOW function if you only want to track time without a date

TIMEVALUE

Returns the local time value without the date such as business hours

TODAY

Returns the current date as a date data type

WEEKDAY

Returns the day of the week for the given date using for Sunday for Monday
through for Saturday

YEAR

Returns the fourdigit year in number format of a given date

Formulas Quick Reference

Logical Functions
Function

Description

AND

Returns a TRUE response if all values are true returns a FALSE response if one or

more values are false

BLANKVALUE

Determines if an expression has a value and returns a substitute expression if it
does not If the expression has a value returns the value of the expression

CASE

Checks a given expression against a series of values If the expression is equal to
a value returns the corresponding result If it is not equal to any values it returns
the elseresult

IF

Determines if expressions are true or false Returns a given value if true and
another value if false

ISBLANK

Determines if an expression has a value and returns TRUE if it does not If it

contains a value this function returns FALSE

ISCLONE

Checks if the record is a clone of another record and returns TRUE if one item is

a clone Otherwise returns FALSE

ISNEW

Checks if the formula is running during the creation of a new record and returns

TRUE if it is If an existing record is being updated this function returns FALSE

ISNULL

Determines if an expression is null blank and returns TRUE if it is If it contains

a value this function returns FALSE

Important Use ISBLANK instead of ISNULL in new formulas ISBLANK

has the same functionality as ISNULL but also supports text fields

Salesforce will continue to support ISNULL so you do not need to change

any existing formulas

ISNUMBER

Determines if a text value is a number and returns TRUE if it is Otherwise it

returns FALSE

NOT

Returns FALSE for TRUE and TRUE for FALSE

NULLVALUE

Determines if an expression is null blank and returns a substitute expression if
it is If the expression is not blank returns the value of the expression

Important Use BLANKVALUE instead of NULLVALUE in new formulas

BLANKVALUE has the same functionality as NULLVALUE but also supports

text fields Salesforce will continue to support NULLVALUE so you do not

need to change existing formulas

OR

Determines if expressions are true or false Returns TRUE if any expression is true

Returns FALSE if all expressions are false

PRIORVALUE

Returns the previous value of a field

Formulas Quick Reference

Math Functions
Function

Description

ABS

Calculates the absolute value of a number The absolute value of a number is
the number without its positive or negative sign

CEILING

Rounds a number up to the nearest integer away from zero if negative

DISTANCE

Calculates the distance between two locations in miles or kilometers

EXP

Returns a value for e raised to the power of a number you specify

FLOOR

Returns a number rounded down to the nearest integer towards zero if negative

GEOLOCATION

Returns a geolocation based on the provided latitude and longitude Must be

used with the DISTANCE function

LN

Returns the natural logarithm of a specified number Natural logarithms are
based on the constant e value of

LOG

Returns the base logarithm of a number

MAX

Returns the highest number from a list of numbers

MCEILING

Rounds a number up to the nearest integer towards zero if negative

MFLOOR

Rounds a number down to the nearest integer away from zero if negative

MIN

Returns the lowest number from a list of numbers

MOD

Returns a remainder after a number is divided by a specified divisor

ROUND

Returns the nearest number to a number you specify constraining the new
number by a specified number of digits

SQRT

Returns the positive square root of a given number

Text Functions
Function

Description

BEGINS

Determines if text begins with specific characters and returns TRUE if it does

Returns FALSE if it does not

BR

Inserts a line break in a string of text

CASESAFEID

Converts a character ID to a caseinsensitive character ID

CONTAINS

Compares two arguments of text and returns TRUE if the first argument contains

the second argument If not returns FALSE

FIND

Returns the position of a string within a string of text represented as a number

GETSESSIONID

Returns the users session ID

Formulas Quick Reference

Function

Description

HTMLENCODE

Encodes text and merge field values for use in HTML by replacing characters

that are reserved in HTML such as the greaterthan sign with HTML entity

equivalents such as gt

Creates a link to a URL specified that is linkable from the text specified

IMAGE

Inserts an image with alternate text and heightwidth specifications

INCLUDES

Determines if any value selected in a multiselect picklist field equals a text literal
you specify

ISPICKVAL

Determines if the value of a picklist field is equal to a text literal you specify

JSENCODE

Encodes text and merge field values for use in JavaScript by inserting escape
characters such as a backslash before unsafe JavaScript characters such as
the apostrophe

JSINHTMLENCODE

Encodes text and merge field values for use in JavaScript inside HTML tags by

replacing characters that are reserved in HTML with HTML entity equivalents

and inserting escape characters before unsafe JavaScript characters
JSINHTMLENCODEsomeValue is a convenience function that is
equivalent to JSENCODEHTMLENCODEsomeValue That is

JSINHTMLENCODE first encodes someValue with HTMLENCODE and

then encodes the result with JSENCODE

LEFT

Returns the specified number of characters from the beginning of a text string

LEN

Returns the number of characters in a specified text string

LOWER

Converts all letters in the specified text string to lowercase Any characters that
are not letters are unaffected by this function Locale rules are applied if a locale
is provided

LPAD

Inserts characters you specify to the leftside of a text string

MID

Returns the specified number of characters from the middle of a text string given
the starting position

Returns the specified number of characters from the end of a text string

RPAD

Inserts characters that you specify to the rightside of a text string

SUBSTITUTE

Substitutes new text for old text in a text string

TEXT

Converts a percent number date datetime or currency type field into text
anywhere formulas are used Also converts picklist values to text in approval
rules approval step rules workflow rules escalation rules assignment rules
autoresponse rules validation rules formula fields field updates and custom
buttons and links

TRIM

Removes the spaces and tabs from the beginning and end of a text string

UPPER

Converts all letters in the specified text string to uppercase Any characters that
are not letters are unaffected by this function Locale rules are applied if a locale
is provided

Formulas Quick Reference

Function

Description

URLENCODE

Encodes text and merge field values for use in URLs by replacing characters that
are illegal in URLs such as blank spaces with the code that represent those

characters as defined in RFC Uniform Resource Identifier URI Generic Syntax

For example blank spaces are replaced with and exclamation points are
replaced with

VALUE

Converts a text string to a number

Summary Functions
The following functions are available with summary matrix and joined reports
Function

Description

PARENTGROUPVAL This function returns the value of a specified parent grouping A parent grouping

is any level above the one containing the formula You can only use this function
in custom summary formulas for reports

PREVGROUPVAL

This function returns the value of a specified previous grouping A previous

grouping is one that comes before the current grouping in the report Choose
the grouping level and increment The increment is the number of columns or
rows before the current summary The default is the maximum is You can
only use this function in custom summary formulas for reports

Advanced Functions
Function

Description

CURRENCYRATE

Returns the conversion rate to the corporate currency for the given currency ISO

code If the currency is invalid returns

GETRECORDIDS

Returns an array of strings in the form of record IDs for the selected records in a
list such as a list view or related list

IMAGEPROXYURL

Securely retrieves external images and prevents unauthorized requests for user
credentials

INCLUDE

Returns content from an scontrol snippet Use this function to reuse common
code in many scontrols

ISCHANGED

Compares the value of a field to the previous value and returns TRUE if the values

are different If the values are the same this function returns FALSE

JUNCTIONIDLIST

Returns a JunctionIDList based on the provided IDs

LINKTO

Returns a relative URL in the form of a link href and anchor tags for a custom

scontrol or Salesforce page

Formulas Quick Reference

Function

Description

REGEX

Compares a text field to a regular expression and returns TRUE if there is a match

Otherwise it returns FALSE A regular expression is a string used to describe a

format of a string according to certain syntax rules

REQUIRESCRIPT

Returns a script tag with source for a URL you specify Use this function when

referencing the Lightning Platform AJAX Toolkit or other JavaScript toolkits

URLFOR

Returns a relative URL for an action scontrol Visualforce page or a file in a static

resource archive in a Visualforce page

VLOOKUP

Returns a value by looking up a related value on a custom object similar to the

VLOOKUP Excel function

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