# Salesforce Formulas Cheatsheet

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### FORMULAS QUICK REFERENCE

Summary

Working with formulas Find

out which operators can be

used in which formulas and

what each one does

Math Operators

Operator

Description

Add

Calculates the sum of two values

Subtract

Calculates the difference of two values

Multiply

Multiplies its values

Divide

Divides its values

Exponentiation Raises a number to a power of a specified number

Open Parenthesis Specifies that the expressions within the open parenthesis and close parenthesis

and Close

are evaluated first All other expressions are evaluated using standard operator

Parenthesis

precedence

Logical Operators

Operator

Description

and Equal

Evaluates if two values are equivalent The and operator are

interchangeable

and Not

Equal

Evaluates if two values are not equivalent

Less Than

Evaluates if a value is less than the value that follows this symbol

Greater Than

Evaluates if a value is greater than the value that follows this symbol

Less Than or

Equal

Evaluates if a value is less than or equal to the value that follows this symbol

Greater Than or Evaluates if a value is greater than or equal to the value that follows this symbol

Equal

### AND

Evaluates if two values or expressions are both true Use this operator as an

### alternative to the logical function AND

### OR

Evaluates if at least one of multiple values or expressions is true Use this operator

### as an alternative to the logical function OR

Last updated March

Formulas Quick Reference

Text Operators

Operator

Description

Concatenate

Connects two or more strings

Date and Time Functions

Function

Description

### ADDMONTHS

Returns the date that is the indicated number of months before or after a

specified date If the resulting month has fewer days than the start month then

the function returns the last day of the resulting month Otherwise the result

has the same day component as the specified date

### DATE

Returns a date value from year month and day values you enter Salesforce

### displays an error on the detail page if the value of the DATE function in a formula

field is an invalid date such as February in a nonleap year

### DATEVALUE

Returns a date value for a datetime or text expression

### DATETIMEVALUE

### Returns a year month day and GMT time value

### DAY

Returns a day of the month in the form of a number between and

### HOUR

Returns the local time hour value without the date in the form of a number from

through

### MILLISECOND

Returns a milliseconds value in the form of a number from through

### MINUTE

Returns a minute value in the form of a number from through

### MONTH

Returns the month a number between January and December in number

format of a given date

### NOW

Returns a datetime representing the current moment

### SECOND

Returns a seconds value in the form of a number from through

### TIMENOW

### Returns a time value in GMT representing the current moment Use this function

### instead of the NOW function if you only want to track time without a date

### TIMEVALUE

Returns the local time value without the date such as business hours

### TODAY

Returns the current date as a date data type

### WEEKDAY

Returns the day of the week for the given date using for Sunday for Monday

through for Saturday

### YEAR

Returns the fourdigit year in number format of a given date

Formulas Quick Reference

Logical Functions

Function

Description

### AND

### Returns a TRUE response if all values are true returns a FALSE response if one or

more values are false

### BLANKVALUE

Determines if an expression has a value and returns a substitute expression if it

does not If the expression has a value returns the value of the expression

### CASE

Checks a given expression against a series of values If the expression is equal to

a value returns the corresponding result If it is not equal to any values it returns

the elseresult

### IF

Determines if expressions are true or false Returns a given value if true and

another value if false

### ISBLANK

### Determines if an expression has a value and returns TRUE if it does not If it

### contains a value this function returns FALSE

### ISCLONE

### Checks if the record is a clone of another record and returns TRUE if one item is

### a clone Otherwise returns FALSE

### ISNEW

Checks if the formula is running during the creation of a new record and returns

### TRUE if it is If an existing record is being updated this function returns FALSE

### ISNULL

### Determines if an expression is null blank and returns TRUE if it is If it contains

### a value this function returns FALSE

### Important Use ISBLANK instead of ISNULL in new formulas ISBLANK

### has the same functionality as ISNULL but also supports text fields

### Salesforce will continue to support ISNULL so you do not need to change

any existing formulas

### ISNUMBER

### Determines if a text value is a number and returns TRUE if it is Otherwise it

### returns FALSE

### NOT

### Returns FALSE for TRUE and TRUE for FALSE

### NULLVALUE

Determines if an expression is null blank and returns a substitute expression if

it is If the expression is not blank returns the value of the expression

### Important Use BLANKVALUE instead of NULLVALUE in new formulas

### BLANKVALUE has the same functionality as NULLVALUE but also supports

### text fields Salesforce will continue to support NULLVALUE so you do not

need to change existing formulas

### OR

### Determines if expressions are true or false Returns TRUE if any expression is true

### Returns FALSE if all expressions are false

### PRIORVALUE

Returns the previous value of a field

Formulas Quick Reference

Math Functions

Function

Description

### ABS

Calculates the absolute value of a number The absolute value of a number is

the number without its positive or negative sign

### CEILING

Rounds a number up to the nearest integer away from zero if negative

### DISTANCE

Calculates the distance between two locations in miles or kilometers

### EXP

Returns a value for e raised to the power of a number you specify

### FLOOR

Returns a number rounded down to the nearest integer towards zero if negative

### GEOLOCATION

Returns a geolocation based on the provided latitude and longitude Must be

### used with the DISTANCE function

### LN

Returns the natural logarithm of a specified number Natural logarithms are

based on the constant e value of

### LOG

Returns the base logarithm of a number

### MAX

Returns the highest number from a list of numbers

### MCEILING

Rounds a number up to the nearest integer towards zero if negative

### MFLOOR

Rounds a number down to the nearest integer away from zero if negative

### MIN

Returns the lowest number from a list of numbers

### MOD

Returns a remainder after a number is divided by a specified divisor

### ROUND

Returns the nearest number to a number you specify constraining the new

number by a specified number of digits

### SQRT

Returns the positive square root of a given number

Text Functions

Function

Description

### BEGINS

### Determines if text begins with specific characters and returns TRUE if it does

### Returns FALSE if it does not

### BR

Inserts a line break in a string of text

### CASESAFEID

### Converts a character ID to a caseinsensitive character ID

### CONTAINS

### Compares two arguments of text and returns TRUE if the first argument contains

### the second argument If not returns FALSE

### FIND

Returns the position of a string within a string of text represented as a number

### GETSESSIONID

### Returns the users session ID

Formulas Quick Reference

Function

Description

### HTMLENCODE

### Encodes text and merge field values for use in HTML by replacing characters

### that are reserved in HTML such as the greaterthan sign with HTML entity

equivalents such as gt

### HYPERLINK

### Creates a link to a URL specified that is linkable from the text specified

### IMAGE

Inserts an image with alternate text and heightwidth specifications

### INCLUDES

Determines if any value selected in a multiselect picklist field equals a text literal

you specify

### ISPICKVAL

Determines if the value of a picklist field is equal to a text literal you specify

### JSENCODE

Encodes text and merge field values for use in JavaScript by inserting escape

characters such as a backslash before unsafe JavaScript characters such as

the apostrophe

### JSINHTMLENCODE

### Encodes text and merge field values for use in JavaScript inside HTML tags by

### replacing characters that are reserved in HTML with HTML entity equivalents

and inserting escape characters before unsafe JavaScript characters

JSINHTMLENCODEsomeValue is a convenience function that is

equivalent to JSENCODEHTMLENCODEsomeValue That is

### JSINHTMLENCODE first encodes someValue with HTMLENCODE and

### then encodes the result with JSENCODE

### LEFT

Returns the specified number of characters from the beginning of a text string

### LEN

Returns the number of characters in a specified text string

### LOWER

Converts all letters in the specified text string to lowercase Any characters that

are not letters are unaffected by this function Locale rules are applied if a locale

is provided

### LPAD

Inserts characters you specify to the leftside of a text string

### MID

Returns the specified number of characters from the middle of a text string given

the starting position

### RIGHT

Returns the specified number of characters from the end of a text string

### RPAD

Inserts characters that you specify to the rightside of a text string

### SUBSTITUTE

Substitutes new text for old text in a text string

### TEXT

Converts a percent number date datetime or currency type field into text

anywhere formulas are used Also converts picklist values to text in approval

rules approval step rules workflow rules escalation rules assignment rules

autoresponse rules validation rules formula fields field updates and custom

buttons and links

### TRIM

Removes the spaces and tabs from the beginning and end of a text string

### UPPER

Converts all letters in the specified text string to uppercase Any characters that

are not letters are unaffected by this function Locale rules are applied if a locale

is provided

Formulas Quick Reference

Function

Description

### URLENCODE

Encodes text and merge field values for use in URLs by replacing characters that

are illegal in URLs such as blank spaces with the code that represent those

### characters as defined in RFC Uniform Resource Identifier URI Generic Syntax

For example blank spaces are replaced with and exclamation points are

replaced with

### VALUE

Converts a text string to a number

Summary Functions

The following functions are available with summary matrix and joined reports

Function

Description

### PARENTGROUPVAL This function returns the value of a specified parent grouping A parent grouping

is any level above the one containing the formula You can use this function

only in custom summary formulas and at grouping levels for reports but not at

summary levels

### PREVGROUPVAL

### This function returns the value of a specified previous grouping A previous

grouping is one that comes before the current grouping in the report Choose

the grouping level and increment The increment is the number of columns or

rows before the current summary The default is the maximum is You can

use this function only in custom summary formulas and at grouping levels for

reports but not at summary levels

Advanced Functions

Function

Description

### CURRENCYRATE

### Returns the conversion rate to the corporate currency for the given currency ISO

code If the currency is invalid returns

### GETRECORDIDS

Returns an array of strings in the form of record IDs for the selected records in a

list such as a list view or related list

### IMAGEPROXYURL

Securely retrieves external images and prevents unauthorized requests for user

credentials

### INCLUDE

Returns content from an scontrol snippet Use this function to reuse common

code in many scontrols

### ISCHANGED

### Compares the value of a field to the previous value and returns TRUE if the values

### are different If the values are the same this function returns FALSE

### JUNCTIONIDLIST

Returns a JunctionIDList based on the provided IDs

### LINKTO

### Returns a relative URL in the form of a link href and anchor tags for a custom

scontrol or Salesforce page

Formulas Quick Reference

Function

Description

### REGEX

### Compares a text field to a regular expression and returns TRUE if there is a match

### Otherwise it returns FALSE A regular expression is a string used to describe a

format of a string according to certain syntax rules

### REQUIRESCRIPT

### Returns a script tag with source for a URL you specify Use this function when

### referencing the Lightning Platform AJAX Toolkit or other JavaScript toolkits

### URLFOR

### Returns a relative URL for an action scontrol Visualforce page or a file in a static

resource archive in a Visualforce page

### VLOOKUP

Returns a value by looking up a related value on a custom object similar to the